A systematic review aims to comprehensively locate and synthesize all research on a particular topic, using an established protocol of organized, transparent, and replicable procedures with some method of synthesis of either the quantitative (ideally meta-analysis) or qualitative (meta-synthesis) research.
A scoping review is similar to a systematic review in aim and process but is used to determine the state of the research for a nascent topic.
Through the use of multiple sources of data and an evidence-based empirical approach, the case study provides “an in-depth description, exploration, or explanation of a particular system or phenomenon through quantitative and/or qualitative methods data collection and analysis. The case study aims to generate or test a theory in its particular social, cultural, and historical context” (Lee, Mishna, & Brennenstuhl, 2010. p. 682).
Medical narrative: A creative non-fiction approach to the case study as an illustration of a particular social phenomenon.
Quantitative intervention studies: Pilot RCT or Quasi-experimental designs
A randomized control trial is an empirical study that collects numerical data to test hypotheses on the effectiveness of an intervention using random assignment to conditions. Pilots assess the feasibility and acceptability, as well as preliminary effectiveness of interventions.
A quasi-experimental study is an empirical study that collects numerical data to test hypotheses on the effectiveness of an intervention using methods other than random assignment to control threats to internal validity, including nonequivalent groups or times series designs.
A quantitative study that examines the predictors/explicators (e.g., risk and protective factors) of a phenomenon.
Treatment Manual developed and/or tested with the use of data
This format involves the development of a treatment or practice manual that provides specific guidelines for a planned, systematic intervention with a client population addressing a particular problem or issue. Data are collected as part of manual development and/or manual evaluation for acceptability, practicality, feasibility, cultural sensitivity, and/or preliminary effectiveness.
An empirical study that makes use of language, words, and narrative as data and often involves focus groups and/or in-depth interviewing of people with the lived experience of a phenomenon.